A new study from the University of British Columbia finds that while men have traditionally been the primary drivers of social change, women are increasingly driving their own careers.
The study, published this week in the journal PLOS ONE, also suggests that women are driving their way into the workplace as well.
“There are a lot of different kinds of work that are done by women, and one of the most significant ones is that of caregiving,” says lead author Kristina Sommers, an assistant professor in the department of sociology.
“In terms of a lot that’s been done, women have made significant progress in that arena.”
The study focused on the employment of caregivers in Canada.
According to the government’s 2012 census, the number of caregivers working in the health care sector increased by 18 percent between 2007 and 2011.
The authors focused on workers who provide care for the elderly, people with disabilities and people with mental health concerns, and compared those numbers to the workforce of men and women.
They found that women had been growing in their share of the sector for years.
In 2009, about 37 percent of all caregivers worked in the public sector, but that figure has increased to 44 percent in 2011, according to the report.
The number of women in the workforce has also risen, from 3.9 percent in 2009 to 4.4 percent in 2012, and the percentage of female caregivers has risen from 5.6 percent in 2007 to 6.6 in 2011.
This is a big jump from just a few years ago.
In 2011, just 9.4 million women worked in their sector, according the report, and in 2010, just 6.5 million did.
And while that was a big drop from 2009, the report says that’s because of the recession, which resulted in a huge spike in the number seeking work.
“The recession is the main driver of that increase in the employment rate of the public-sector population,” Sommer says.
“We were seeing more people in their 20s, 30s and 40s, so this is a real driver for people who are not in the labour force.”
The report found that while women have been steadily increasing their share in the work force, they haven’t necessarily been gaining the same share of total employment.
This isn’t surprising, Somming says.
Women have traditionally had a higher job share than men in many areas, including in social work, the health sector, the service sector and other non-career jobs.
In some cases, she says, women’s jobs have been less than men’s, or even worse.
And this is changing.
According a 2011 report by the University the gender pay gap in the private sector was widening.
The report, which was released last month, found that the gap between male and female earners was widening in a number of sectors.
The proportion of women working in higher education rose from 22.6 to 26.1 percent, in the construction and real estate industries, from 23.3 to 27.4, in finance and insurance, from 25.5 to 26 percent in telecommunications, from 28.3 percent to 30.5 percent in accounting, from 31.5 and 32.6 percentage points in professional and business services, and from 32.4 to 34.9 percentage points on the services and manufacturing sector.
In the mining industry, the gender gap in mining and other related industries rose from 18.4 percentage points to 24.9.
In construction, it rose from 24.3 percentage points up to 28.9 and in manufacturing from 28 to 34 percentage points.
In other industries, such as health care, the gap in wages widened.
In 2013, the pay gap between men and female workers in the same sector rose from 27 to 33.9, according a study by the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
And the number one cause of women’s under-representation in management has been discrimination.
In 2012, only 11.7 percent of women were employed in management positions in Canada, according Statistics Canada.
The data doesn’t necessarily show a decline, however.
The figures were unchanged in 2011 and 2011, and then slightly improved in 2012 and 2013.
The researchers also looked at how the gender wage gap differed across occupations.
In all industries, the wage gap between women and men was slightly higher in the retail and wholesale trades.
But the wage gaps in health care and social assistance were higher in health and social services, while retail and transportation were lower.
“For example, in retail, the median wage gap was 30 percent in the grocery industry, while it was 40 percent in health services,” Somers says.
In general, women earn less than their male counterparts in almost every industry.
Sommering says the gender disparity is particularly notable in the services industry, where the gender ratio is nearly equal.
For example, the female median wage in the personal care and service industry was $10.90 per hour, while the male median was $13.80. The wage